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Mix and Match with Old Windows and Macs : Internetworking with Windows 95, 98, and Me, Internetworking with UNIX and Linux

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7/5/2013 5:32:57 PM

1. Internetworking with Windows 95, 98, and Me

Internetworking between Windows 7 and Windows 95, 98, or Me requires some additional setup work.

First, Windows computers have difficulty “seeing” each other if you don’t have the exact same set of networking protocols installed on every computer on the network. You need to ensure that every Windows 95, 98, and Me computer has the TCP/IP protocol installed, and you also must uninstall the NetBEUI and IPX/SPX protocols from them.

Second, the default password security settings used when Windows 7 is installed make Windows 7 harder for a network hacker (or hardware hacker) to break your Windows 7 passwords. Unless you turn off Password Protected Sharing, you need to change one of Windows 7’s security settings. This significantly increases the risk that someone could break into your computer.

If you really must use Windows 95, 98, or Me on your network, you most likely need to change the protocol settings on the older computers, using the following steps. You might be asked to insert your Windows installation CD, unless your computer manufacturer copied its entire contents to your hard drive.

1.
On your Windows 9x or Me computer, click Start, Control Panel, and then open the Network icon.

2.
In the components list, select entries whose names start with “NetBEUI” or “IPX/SPX Compatible Protocol,” and click Remove. Repeat for any additional entries.

3.
Make sure that Client for Microsoft Networks appears in the list. If it does not, click Add, Client, and select Client for Microsoft Networks. Click OK as necessary to return to the Network control panel dialog box.

4.
If your Windows 9x/Me computer is a member of a corporate domain network, view the Access Control tab and select User-Level Access Control. Enter the name of a domain controller computer. (Your network administrator will help with this.)

On home or small-office networks, view the Access Control tab and make sure that Share-Level Access Control is selected.

5.
Click OK to close the dialog boxes. You might be prompted to insert your Windows installation CD if you had to add the Client for Microsoft Networks in step 3.

6.
Let Windows restart.

If you need to share printers or folders from your Windows 9x or Me computers for use by computers running Windows 2000, XP, Vista, or 7, do not set a password for the shared folder. These newer versions of Windows cannot supply a password in the way that Windows 9x or Me expects. The only security option you have is whether to select Read-Only or Full on the Sharing tab of the folders you select to share. “Full” lets other network users add to, change, or delete files in the shared folder.

You should not expect to be able to access folders or printers shared by computers running Windows 7 from computers running Windows 9x or Me, unless you’ve turned Password Protected Sharing off and use the username Guest. (Windows 9x/Me cannot provide valid username and password information to Windows 7 unless you make unacceptably risky changes to Windows 7’s password database.)

2. Internetworking with UNIX and Linux

The UNIX operating system, originally developed in the 1970s at AT&T’s Bell Laboratories as a platform for internal software development and as a “workbench” for programmers, is still evolving and growing. Most of the Internet software you’re familiar with today was originally developed on UNIX systems, in fact. The Open Source phenomenon (which is by no means new but is certainly resurgent) has also produced no-cost UNIX clones such as NetBSD and Linux. Perhaps hundreds of millions of people use these UNIX-type OSs every day, sometimes without even knowing it. For example, the Apple Mac and iPhone OSs are based on NetBSD, and Linux can be found in home computers, network routers, TiVo digital video recorders, engineering workstations, Internet servers, cell phones, IBM mainframes, laptops for children in the developing world, and space probes.

This section looks at ways to network Windows 7 with UNIX-type OSs. Although many of the examples involve Linux, most of the examples can be translated to almost any UNIX-type OS. And because typing “UNIX-type” is already getting tiresome, from here on, I sometimes write just “UNIX,” but I always mean “UNIX and/or Linux and/or Mac OS X.”

Samba

Samba is an open source (free) software suite available on most UNIX-like OSs. The Samba server program makes it possible for UNIX computers to share folders and printers that Windows users can access, and the Samba client tools let UNIX users access folders and printers shared by Windows computers. Samba is included with Apple’s OS X, which is how Macs get their Windows file sharing capability. The names of the Samba programs start with the letters smb, which stands for Server Message Block. This is the name of the network protocol on which Windows file sharing is based.

Samba Client Tools

To access file services on a Windows server from UNIX, you must know exactly what resources are available from a given host on the network. Samba includes a command-line program called smbclient for just that purpose. This application enables you to list available Windows shares and printers from within UNIX. For example, the command smbclient -L //lombok lists all the folders and printers shared by the computer named lombok.


When you know the name of the desired shared folder, the smbmount command enables you to mount the Windows share on the local (UNIX) file system. The command

smbmount //lombok/shareddocs /mnt/winshare -U brian

mounts the SharedDocs folder shared by computer lombok to the local directory /mnt/winshare. The -U switch tells smbclient what username to use when trying to mount the share. You are prompted for a password.

Samba Server Tools

Samba also includes tools and servers to make your UNIX system look just like a Windows-based network server; this capability lets your Windows computers use files and printers shared by UNIX systems.

The parameters for configuring Samba in a server capacity are contained in the file /etc/smb.conf on the UNIX host. The default file included with Samba has comments for every parameter to explain each one.

  • Some OSs, such as the Mac OS X, include a GUI tool to configure Samba file sharing. These tools make the job a lot easier.

  • If you have to set up file sharing by hand, read the documentation and FAQs for your Samba version before starting the setup procedure. A good place to start is http://en.tldp.org/HOWTO/SMB-HOWTO.html.

  • Configure Samba for user-specific passwords with the security option. You need to set up UNIX user accounts for each of your Windows users. Alternatively, you can set up a single UNIX account that all Windows user will share; Windows users need to supply the selected username and password when they use UNIX shares.

  • Either way, set encrypt passwords = yes in smb.conf. You also need to set up a user and password file for Samba’s use, which is usually specified with the smb.conf entry smb passwd file = /etc/smbpasswd. Your Samba documentation explains how to do this.

  • Alternatively, you can use share-level security without a password. This makes Samba behave similar to Windows 7 with Password Protected Sharing turned off. However, in this case, you must take care to prevent SMB access to your UNIX computer from the Internet. To be precise, you must be sure that TCP port 445 is blocked.

When you have finished editing the smb.conf file, you can test to see that the syntax is correct by using the Samba program testparm. testparm checks smb.conf for internal “correctness” before you actually use it in a production environment.

Printing to UNIX Queues from Windows

You can configure Samba to offer standard Windows shared printer service. As an alternative, Windows 7 has built-in support to send output to UNIX-based printers using the Line Printer Remote (LPR) protocol. You can install a standard Windows printer whose output is directed to a UNIX system and can use this printer just as you would any local or networked Windows printer.

Printing to Windows Printers from UNIX

You can install software on Windows 7 to let UNIX users print to any local printers shared by your computer. This is the receiving end of the LPR protocol, and it’s called Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Print Service.

To install this service, log on as a Computer Administrator and follow these steps:

1.
Click Start, Control Panel, Programs, Turn Windows Features On or Off.

2.
Scroll through the list of features and open Print and Document Services.

3.
Check LPD Print Service, and then click OK.


Carriage Returns and Line Feeds Are Mangled

If you send plain-text files from UNIX machines to Windows printers using lpr and Print Services for UNIX and find that carriage returns and line feeds are mangled (for example, line feeds are inserted where just carriage returns were present in text that should have been overprinted), you need to disable the translation of both newlines and carriage returns, or just carriage returns, by adding a value to the Registry.


Use the Registry editor called Regedit to find the key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Print\Printers\printername\PrinterDriverData, where printername is the name of the shared printer the UNIX user is using. Then,

  1. Select the key PrinterDriverData and choose Edit, New, DWORD Value. Enter the name Winprint_TextNoTranslation, and set the value to 1.

  2. To prevent the server from replacing CR with CR+LF but still have it replace LF with CR+LF, add the DWORD value Winprint_TextNoCRTranslation with the value 1.

  3. After making either of these additions, go to Computer Management, view Services, right-click TCP/IP Print Server, and select Restart.

Some Windows printer drivers do not correctly implement overprinted lines. You might find that thes lines are now correctly stacked on top of each other, but only the text from the topmost line is visible. You might need to use the binary mode flag (-o l) in your lpr command and add a form feed to the end of your file.

If you later decide to undo the Registry change, you can remove the value item or set its value to 0 and then restart the service.


Services for NFS

Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise editions come with client support for the network file system (NFS) file sharingsystem used on many UNIX systems. By “client support,” I mean that Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise editions can use files and folders shared by NFS file servers, but they cannot share files to the network using NFS. It’s an optional component and is not installed by default.

To install client support for NFS file resources, follow these steps:

1.
Log on as a Computer Administrator.

2.
Install Services for NFS by clicking Start, Control Panel, Programs, Turn Windows Features On or Off. Expand the Services for NFS entry and check both Administrative Tools and Client for NFS. Click OK to complete the installation.

3.
Click Start, Control Panel, System and Security, Administrative Tools.

4.
In the tool list, double-click Services for Network File System (NFS).

This displays the Services for Network File System management tool. The tool is not put together in the usual way. The right pane contains only help information. It’s useful, though; click on any of the links to display the Windows Help pages for NFS. The management functions are found in the left pane.

To configure the client, follow these steps:

1.
To select the method that NFS should use to map Windows logon names to UNIX logon names, right-click Services for NFS in the left pane and select Properties. If your network provides UNIX name-mapping information through Active Directory, check Active Directory and enter the name of the Windows domain. If a User Name Mapping Service server exists on the network, check Use Name Mapping and enter the hostname of the mapping server. Either way, your network administrator should provide you with this information.

If you select neither Active Directory nor User Name Mapping, the NFS client will access shares anonymously. The NFS server might restrict or reject anonymous access.

2.
To select whether to use “hard” or “soft” mounts, right-click Client for NFS in the left pane and select Properties. This setting determines how many times the client service will attempt to reconnect to a server that goes offline or becomes unreachable. Microsoft recommends using soft mounts, although your network administrator might advise otherwise.

This Properties dialog box also lets you determine whether the client uses TCP, UDP, or TCP and UDP for NFS access. You should be able to use the default TCP/UDP setting.

3.
To set the UNIX access mask that the client should use when creating new files or folders in an NFS share, right-click Client for NFS in the left pane, select Properties, and view the Permissions tab. Check the boxes corresponding to the permissions that you want to grant on new files that you might create. (This setting corresponds to the umask setting in a UNIX shell; the default Client settings correspond to a umask of 755.)

To start or stop the client service, right-click Client for NFS and select Start Service or Stop Service. Normally, it should start immediately on installation and whenever you start Windows.

Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications

With Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise editions, Microsoft offers a free set of tools called the Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications (SUA). SUA provides almost all the utilities you need to seamlessly glue together a network that includes Windows, UNIX, and Linux computers and services.

Note

SUA is available only on Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise editions. It is not available on any other Windows 7 versions.


The “Subsystem” part of the name is significant. The Windows NT kernel on which Windows 7 is based was designed to allow direct support of other OS models in addition to Windows. SUA is actually a full-fledged UNIX OS environment that runs in parallel to Windows, not “over” it. SUA runs UNIX executable files directly and provides a mostly POSIX-compatible environment with complete case-sensitive filenames, fork() and pthreads support, a single-root file system, and so on.

When the optional Software Development Kit (SDK) component is downloaded and installed, a full UNIX toolkit is available, containing over 300 standard UNIX programs. (About all that’s missing is an X Window server.)

To install SUA on Windows 7 Ultimate or Enterprise, follow these steps:

1.
Click Start, Control Panel, Programs, Turn Windows Features On or Off, and check Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications. Click OK to perform the installation.

If you need to run only a few specific UNIX applications that you already possess, you can stop at this point.

If you want to install the full complement of UNIX utilities and development tools and/or the X Window System environment, proceed to step 2.

2.
Click Start, All Programs, Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications, and select Download Utilities for Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications. Download and save the installation package to a temporary location.

3.
Right-click the downloaded file and select Run As Administrator. If you want to install the package on only one computer, take note of the temporary file location displayed in the Unzip to Folder field, and then click Unzip. This unzips the files to the temporary folder and automatically runs the setup program. Then proceed to step 4.

If you want to install the package on several computers, follow these additional steps:

a. Uncheck the option When Done Unzipping Open Setup.exe.

b. Create a folder named SUA SDK Setup on a network-shared folder.

c. Set the Unzip to Folder path to this new folder. Then click Unzip to unzip the setup files.

d. To install the utilities and SDK programs on a given computer, locate and open the SUA SDK Setup folder. Right-click setup.exe and select Run As Administrator.

4.
Click Next to start the installation wizard. Successive wizard pages ask you to enter your name and organization, and approve the license agreement. In the fourth page, you are asked whether to perform a standard or custom installation. The standard installation installs the base SUA utilities (a set of BSD UNIX programs) and base SDK components (mostly standard include files, libraries, and build utilities).

If you select custom installation, you can additionally elect to install the SVR-5 utilities (a set of programs deriving from UNIX SVR-5), GNU compilers and utilities, the GNU SDK, Perl, and a Visual Studio debugger add-in. To select a component, click the red X and select Will Be Installed on Local Hard Drive.

In most cases, you probably want to select the custom installation and install all components.

5.
Click Next until you reach the Security Settings page. Here, you can enable setuid behavior and case sensitivity for filenames and system objects.

With setuid, you can mark a program so that when anyone runs it, it runs with the security context of the program’s owner. In Windows terms, it automatically uses “run as” whenever it’s run, and the user doesn’t need to enter a password. Case sensitivity lets the Windows file system treat upper- and lowercase letters as distinct; for example, Note.txt and NOTE.TXT are considered to be different filenames, and both can exist in the same folder. UNIX applications treat them as different files. (However, Windows applications do not and just open a file arbitrarily.)

Both setuid and case sensitivity are the norm on UNIX systems. Some UNIX programs require them, but they are foreign concepts to most Windows users, and they have both positive and negative security implications. Microsoft recommends disabling setuid unless you are sure that your UNIX applications or daemons (services) require it. Case sensitivity is usually required for correct operation of UNIX software-development tools (makefiles).

For more information, open and read install.htm, which was unzipped into the temporary folder or network shared folder in step 3. Also remember that you can change these settings after installation by editing the Windows Registry and rebooting, as noted in install.htm.

6.
After the installer finishes, if you enabled case sensitivity or setuid, restart Windows. When Windows is back up again, log on as a Computer Administrator.

7.
Click Start, All Programs, Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications, Check for Critical Updates. This takes you to a Microsoft web page that lets you check for security updates to the utilities.

Although updates for the UNIX Subsystem itself are delivered through Windows Update and Automatic Updates, security fixes for the downloaded utilities are not. You need to remember to periodically use this menu selection to check for security updates to the utilities.

When the utilities and SDK have been installed, you can start a UNIX shell (Command Prompt window) by clicking Start, All Programs, Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications, and either C Shell, Korn Shell, or SVR-5 Korn Shell, depending on your preference. The What’s New menu item provides information on how SUA differs from the Windows XP Services for UNIX and provides an overview of SUA features.

For detailed help information, click Start, All Programs, Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications, Help for Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications. The UNIX man, apropos, and other standard help programs are available within the UNIX shells.

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