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Windows Phone

Windows Phone 7 : Using MVVM and Performing Unit Testing

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7/19/2012 6:24:19 PM

1. Problem

You want to write an application and test its logic by using a unit test, instead of using the F5 debug approach.

2. Solution

You must write your application by using the MVVM pattern, then you will be able to write Unit Test for each ViewModel. To test your ViewModels, you need to use the Silverlight Unit Test Framework tweaked for Windows Phone 7 by Jeff Wilcox.

3. How It Works

Unit tests are important for testing the singular functionality of your classes. In this recipe, you will build on Recipe 1 by creating logic for the SaveCommandExecute method. You will then create a test class with two test methods, one that always fails and another that always works. This way, you will learn how to run tests on your ViewModel and how to write them, with the scope of automatically test your business logic without any needs of interaction by you with the user interface (this is not completely exact, because Silverlight Unit Test Framework requires a couple of tap by you to run the Test).

4. The Code

Because the scope of this recipe is to show you how to unit test your Windows Phone applications, we added dummy logic to ViewModel, introducing the enumeration states:

public enum States : uint { Saved, Unsaved};

and a property inside MainPageViewModel of this type

...
    #region State Property

        /// <summary>
        /// The <see cref="State" /> property's name.
        /// </summary>
        public const string StatePropertyName = "State";

private States _state = States.Unsaved;

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the State property.
        /// </summary>
        public States State
        {
            get
            {
                return _state;
            }

            set
            {
                if (_state == value)
                {
                    return;
                }

                var oldValue = _state;
                _state = value;

                // Update bindings, no broadcast
                RaisePropertyChanged(StatePropertyName);
            }
        }

        #endregion
...

					  

As you can see, this property notifies the interface that a change has occurred, because when you save an object, it's good practice to let the user know what is being done.

Our last change to MainPageViewModel for this recipe is in SaveCommandExecute, which checks for the state of the view model and sets the State property to "saves" or "unsaves" data (of course, the logic that we show you its really simple but only because we use it for a didactical purpose)

private void SaveCommandExecute()
        {
            State = (this.Amount == 0 || string.IsNullOrEmpty(Motivation))
                ? States.Unsaved : States.Saved;
        }

Now that you have logic inside your ViewModel, you are ready to test it. Create a folder inside your project with the name UnitTests and add a class inside it named MainPageViewModelTest.

This class must be decorated with the TestClass attribute and needs to inherit from the SilverlightTest class contained in the namespace Microsoft.Silverlight.Testing, which is inside the assembly Microsoft.Silverlight.Testing.dll. We added three methods inside this class— TestSaveAlwaysFails, TestSaveOk, and TestSaveKo—decorating them with the TestMethod attribute. As you can guess from the names, the first test always fails, the second test results in a successful save, and the last results in an incorrect save

[TestClass]
    public class MainPageViewModelTest : SilverlightTest
    {
        [TestMethod]
        public void TestSaveAlwaysFails()
        {
                MainPageViewModel vm = new MainPageViewModel();
                vm.Motivation = string.Empty;
                vm.SaveCommand.Execute(null);
                Assert.IsTrue(vm.State == MainPageViewModel.States.Saved);
        }

        [TestMethod]
        public void TestSaveOk()
        {
            MainPageViewModel vm = new MainPageViewModel();
            vm.Motivation = "Shopping";
            vm.Amount = 200;
            vm.SaveCommand.Execute(null);
            Assert.IsTrue(vm.State == MainPageViewModel.States.Saved);
        }

        [TestMethod]
        public void TestSaveKo()
        {
            MainPageViewModel vm = new MainPageViewModel();
            vm.Motivation = string.Empty;
            vm.SaveCommand.Execute(null);
            Assert.IsFalse(vm.State == MainPageViewModel.States.Saved);
        }

    }

					  

The last thing you need to do is to set the entry point for your suite of tests. Load the test execution page just after loading the main page of the application, as follows:

public MainPage()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
            Loaded += new RoutedEventHandler(MainPage_Loaded);
        }

        void MainPage_Loaded(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            SystemTray.IsVisible = false;
            var testExecutionPage = UnitTestSystem.CreateTestPage() as IMobileTestPage;
            BackKeyPress += (k, ek) => ek.Cancel = testExecutionPage.NavigateBack();
            (Application.Current.RootVisual as PhoneApplicationFrame).Content =
                                                 testExecutionPage;
        }

					  

Now you are ready to test your application.

5. Usage

Run the project by using Visual Studio, targeting the emulator (if you run it on the device itself, some text blocks will be too small to read well, but we think that by the quantity of information shown inside the test page, there is nothing more to do). Wait a few seconds while the test page runs (see Figure 1). Then look for the result (see Figure 2). As planned, one test failed, and other two passed (That in Test Driven Develepement TDD traducts in "correct the bug then run the test again")

Figure 1. Starting the unit test

Figure 2. Testing result
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